History Articles

These are full length articles on various topics of history that I have written over the years. They span several topics and include notes and further reading.

Antitrinitarians of the Reformation - From Michael Servetus to the Socinians

Michael Servetus has the singular distinction of having been burned by the Catholics in effigy and by the Protestants in actuality. - Roland H. Bainton.


Published 01 June 2020 | Posted under Reformation

Part of the fascination of history is the quite regular occurrence over time of extraordinary events. History is a process of the mundane flow of the lives of individuals and of society generally that changes course as a result of unexpected and/or extraordinary events. The Reformation is a case in point.

The Radical Reformer Michael Servetus

Published 01 June 2020 | Posted under Reformation

Michael Servetus, a Spaniard born in 1511, is one of the most well-known of the Reformation era reformers. He was sentenced to death by both Catholics and Protestants. He become a touchstone of the Toleration movement, that no one should be put to death for his beliefs. We enjoy freedom of thought and religion in part because of the death of Servetus.

The Polish Brethren

Published 03 June 2020 | Posted under Reformation

The Polish Brethren were a radical Christian movement that developed during Poland's era of religious toleration which was from about the mid-sixteenth to mid-seventeenth centuries.

Faustus Socinus and Socinianism

Published 04 June 2020 | Posted under Reformation

Both the Socinians and Servetus were antitrinitarian but Servetus' Jesus was a mode of God, whereas Socinus' Jesus was a miraculously created man who by God's power and strength remained sinless.


Published 05 June 2020 | Posted under Reformation

The execution of Servetus led eventually to religious toleration and the emergence of the "third way" of the Socinians which today are known as the Unitarians.

Further Reading

Published 05 June 2020 | Posted under Reformation

Primary and secondary sources for additional research.